How to cite: H. SAARONI E. LEVI, B. ZIV (2018) Natural and Anthropogenic Particulate Matter Haifa Metropolitan Area, Israel and Its Relation to the Synoptic Conditions and the Summer Climatic Stress. .
2018 Air and Water Components of the Environment Conference Proceedings, P. 239-249, DOI: 10.24193/AWC2018_28
NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC PARTICULATE MATTER HAIFA METROPOLITAN AREA, ISRAEL AND ITS RELATION TO THE SYNOPTIC CONDITIONS AND THE SUMMER CLIMATIC STRESS
H. SAARONI, E. LEVI, B. ZIV
ABSTRACT. – Natural and Anthropogenic Particulate Matter Haifa Metropolitan Area, Israel and Its Relation to the Synoptic Conditions and the Summer Climatic Stress. Relatively high Particulate Matter (PM) concentration characterizing the Middle East and Israel are attributed mainly to natural dust storms, but also to local and remote anthropogenic sources. The spatio-temporal distribution of the pollution highly depends on the geographical characteristics of the region, such as the complex terrain of Haifa, the nearby bay structure and the atmospheric conditions determined by the combined meso-, local and synoptic-scale circulations. The research analyzes the role of synoptic conditions and climatic stress in the temporal and spatial distribution of PM10 and PM2.5, adopting the ‘environment to circulation’ approach. The study focuses on the summer season, characterized by the persistent northwesterly Etesian winds, with no dust import from the Sahara or the Arabian deserts. A pronounced diurnal and weekly course of PM concentrations indicate its anthropogenic sources, both local and remote. PM concentrations were found positively correlated with the summer climatic stress index, developed by Saaroni et al. (2017). High climatic stress conditions are characterized by weakening of the Etesian winds and a thinner boundary layer over Israel. This reduces the transport of remote pollution from East Europe on the one hand, but enhances locally originated pollution on the other, due to the implied weakening of their removal mechanisms. An increase in the climatic stress is well noted along the study period, 2002-2017, associated with the general warming. Nevertheless, a significant reduction trend in the daily summer concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 is found, attributed to the dominant role of the regulations in reducing air pollution. This negative trend is accompanied by relatively high inter-annual variability, which reflects the dependence of concentrations on the climatic stress.
Keywords: Particulate Matter (PM), dust outbreaks, heat stress, climatic stress, Israel.